2021 SNFBA Course Materials

Monday, 1 November | Tuesday, 2 November | Wednesday, 3 November

Monday, 1 November

Welcome             14:00-14:15

  • Jeffrey Kahn, PhD, MPH
    Andreas C. Dracopoulos Director of the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics
    Robert Henry Levi and Ryda Hecht Levi Professor of Bioethics and Public Policy
  • Effy Vayena, PhD
    Chair in Bioethics, ETH Zurich
    Chair of the Hellenic National Bioethics and Technoethics Commission

Principles of bioethics as they apply to the COVID-19 pandemic     14:15-15:45

Universal Ethical Principles, Common Morality, and the Pandemic Part 1
Universal Ethical Principles, Common Morality, and the Pandemic Part 2


Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. Principles of Biomedical Ethics. 8th Ed. Oxford University Press; 2021:chap. 1.

Gordon JS, Rauprich O, Vollman J, Applying the Four-Principle Approach. Bioethics. 2011; 25:293–300, with a reply by Beauchamp T. Making Principlism Practical: A Commentary on Gordon, Rauprich, and Vollmann. Bioethics. 2011; 25: 301–03.


Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. Principles of Biomedical Ethics. 8th Ed. Oxford University Press. 2021:especially chaps. 2, 10.

DeGrazia D, Beauchamp T. Philosophical Methods. in Sulmasy D, Sugarman J. Methods of Bioethics. 2nd Ed. Georgetown University Press. 2010:37-53.

National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research. DHEW Publication OS 78–0012. 1978; reissued in the Federal Register, 1979.

Rauprich O. Common Morality: Comment on Beauchamp and Childress. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics. 2008; 29:43-71.

Break        15:45-16:00

Ethics and public policy during a pandemic         16:00-17:00

  • Nancy E. Kass, ScD
    Deputy Director for Public Health, Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics
    Phoebe R. Berman Professor of Bioethics and Public Health
Lecture 1: Public Health Ethics
Frameworks of Public Health Ethics
Lecture 3: COVID19 and Public Health Ethics

Kass NE. An Ethics Framework for Public Health. Am J Public Health. 2001; 91:1776-1782.

Largent EA, Miller FG. Problems with Paying People to be Vaccinated. JAMA. 2021 Feb 9; 325(6):534-535.

Persad G, Emanuel EJ. Benefits for Vaccination. JAMA. 2021 Jul 20; 221-222.

Case and Discussion Prompts

Theater of War performance and discussion     17:00-18:30

Women of Trachis


Tuesday, 2 November

Justice and public health policy during a pandemic—the case of vaccine allocation and distribution     14:00-15:00

  • Ruth R. Faden, PhD, MPH
    Founder, Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics
    Philip Franklin Wagley Professor of Biomedical Ethics
Lecture 1. Justice and Public Health
Lecture 2 (Part 1 of 2): Case Discussion of Vaccine Allocation
Lecture 2 (Part 2 of 2): Case Discussion of Vaccine Allocation

World Health Organization. WHO SAGE values framework for the allocation and prioritization of COVID-19 vaccination. World Health Organization. 2020 Sep 14.

World Health Organization. WHO SAGE roadmap for prioritizing uses of COVID-19 vaccines in the context of limited supply. World Health Organization. 2020 Oct 20.

Faden R, Bernstein J, Shebaya S, Justice and Public Health. In Zalta EN. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Fall 2020 Ed. Accessed October 24, 2021. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/publichealth-ethics/#JustPublHeal

Case and Discussion Prompts

Addressing shortages during the pandemic—clinical ethics meets ethics and public health policy       15:00-16:00

  • Jeffrey Kahn, PhD, MPH
    Andreas C. Dracopoulos Director of the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics
    Robert Henry Levi and Ryda Hecht Levi Professor of Bioethics and Public Policy
Lecture 1: Scarce Resource Planning and COVID 19
Lecture 2 (From beginning to 32:05): COVID-19 and the Ethics of Scarce Resource Planning
Optional: NETEC COVID-19 Webinar Series - Ethical Issues in Pandemic Response, Triage and Beyond with Matt Mynia

Berwick DM. The Moral Determinants of Health. JAMA. 2020; 324(3):225-226. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.11129

Smith M, Ross U. Pandemic Disease, Public Health, and Ethics. In Mastroianni AC, Kahn JP, Kass NE. The Oxford Handbook of Public Health Ethics. Oxford University Press. 2019; doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190245191.013.69

Galiatsatos P, Kachalia A, Belcher HM, Hughes MT, Kahn J, Rushton CH, Suarez JI, Biddison LD, Golden SH. Health equity and distributive justice considerations in critical care resource allocation. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 2020; 8(8):758-760.

Ehmann MR, Zink EK, Levin AB, Suarez JI, Belcher HM, Biddison ELD, Doberman DJ, D’Souza K, Fine DM, Garibaldi BT, Gehrie EA. Operational recommendations for scarce resource allocation in a public health crisis. Chest. 2021; 159(3):1076-1083.

Case and Discussion Prompts

Break             16:00-16:15

Part I – Ethics and governance of digital technologies during a pandemic         16:15-17:15

  • Effy Vayena, PhD
    Chair in Bioethics, ETH Zurich
    Chair of the Hellenic National Bioethics and Technoethics Commission
Ethics and governance of digital technologies


Vayena E. Value from health data: European opportunity to catalyse progress in digital health. Lancet. 2021 Feb 20; 397(10275):652-653. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00203-8. Epub 2021 Feb 8. PMID: 33571452.

Mello M, Wang J. Ethics and governance for digital disease surveillance. Science. 2020 May 29; 368(6494):951-954.


Samuel G, Roberts SL, Fiske A, et al. COVID-19 contact tracing apps: UK public perceptions. Critical Public Health. 2021; https://doi.org/10.1080/09581596.2021.1909707.

Sharon T. Blind-sided by privacy? Digital contact tracing, the Apple/Google API and big tech’s newfound role as global health policy makers. Ethics Inf Technol. 2020 Jul 18;  doi: 10.1007/s10676-020-09547-x.

Blasimme A, Vayena E. What’s next for COVID-19 apps? Governance and oversight. Science. 2020 Nov 13; 370(6518):760-762. doi: 10.1126/science.abd9006. PMID: 33184192.

Multimedia Resource

Digital contact tracing during a pandemic | BBC News

Case and Discussion Prompts

Part II – Digital technologies during the pandemic: ethics and governance      17:15-18:15

Digital technologies during the pandemic


Gostin LO, Cohen IG, Shaw J. Digital Health Passes in the Age of COVID-19: Are “Vaccine Passports” Lawful and Ethical?. JAMA. 2021; 325(19):1933–1934. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.5283

Vayena E, Blasimme A, Cohen IG. Machine learning in medicine: addressing ethical challengesPLoS medicine. 2018; 15(11), p.e1002689.

Leslie D, Mazumder A, Peppin A, Wolters MK, Hagerty A. Does “AI” stand for augmenting inequality in the era of covid-19 healthcare? BMJ. 2021; 372:n304.

Cave S, Whittlestone J, Nyrup R, Calvo RA. Using AI ethically to tackle covid-19BMJ. 2021; 372:n364.


Amann J, Blasimme A, Vayena E, Frey D, Madai VI. Explainability for artificial intelligence in healthcare: a multidisciplinary perspective. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making. 2020; 20:310.

Blasimme A, Vayena E. The ethics of AI in biomedical research, patient care and public health. In Dubber MD, Pasquale F, Das S. Patient Care and Public Health. Oxford Handbook of Ethics of Artificial Intelligence. Oxford University Press. 2019; Ch. 37.

Multimedia resources

Could COVID-19 ‘vaccine certificates’ lead to discrimination? | Inside Story

Using AI To Track The Coronavirus | BBC Click

Wednesday, 3 November

Research ethics during a pandemic        14:00-15:00

  • Jeremy Sugarman, MD, MPH, MA
    Deputy Director for Medicine, Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics
    Harvey M. Meyerhoff Professor of Bioethics and Medicine
Lecture 1: Foundations of Research Ethics
Lecture 2: Institutional Prioritization
Lecture 3: HIV Research Impacted by COVID-19

Foundations of Research Ethics


Sugarman J. Ethics in the design and conduct of clinical trials. Epidemiol Rev. 2002; 24(1):54-8. doi: 10.1093/epirev/24.1.54. PMID: 12119856.


Emanuel EJ, Wendler D, Grady C. What makes clinical research ethical? JAMA. 2000 May 24-31; 283(20):2701-11. doi: 10.1001/jama.283.20.2701. PMID: 10819955.

Research Ethics and COVID-19


London AJ, Kimmelman J. Against pandemic research exceptionalism. Science. 2020 May 1; 368(6490):476-477. doi: 10.1126/science.abc1731. Epub 2020 Apr 23. PMID: 32327600.

Meyer MN, Gelinas L, Bierer BE, Hull SC, Joffe S, Magnus D, Mohapatra S, Sharp RR, Spector-Bagdady K, Sugarman J, Wilfond BS, Lynch HF. An ethics framework for consolidating and prioritizing COVID-19 clinical trials. Clin Trials. 2021 Apr; 18(2):226-233. doi: 10.1177/1740774520988669. Epub 2021 Feb 2. PMID: 33530721; PMCID: PMC8009845.

Rennie S, Chege W, Schrumpf LA, Luna F, Klitzman R, Moseki E, Brown B, Wakefield S, Sugarman J. HIV prevention research and COVID-19: putting ethics guidance to the test. BMC Med Ethics. 2021 Jan 25; 22(1):6. doi: 10.1186/s12910-021-00575-w. PMID: 33494754; PMCID: PMC7829648.

Rubin R. The price of success-how to evaluate COVID-19 vaccines when they’re available outside of clinical trials. JAMA. 2021 Mar 9; 325(10):918-921. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.0641. PMID: 33599685.

Panel Discussion: Ethical problems faced in Greece during the pandemic          15:00-16:00

  • Ismini Kriari, PhD
    Professor of Constitutional Law, Department of Public Administration
    Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences
  • Evangelos D. Protopapadakis, PhD
    Associate Professor of Applied Ethics, Director of the NKUA Applied Philosophy Research Lab
    Head of the Greek Unit – International Chair in Bioethics – Member of the Hellenic National Commission for Bioethics and Technoethics
  • Stavroula Tsinorema, PhD
    Professor of Modern & Contemporary Philosophy and Bioethics
    Director of the Joint Graduate Programme “Bioethics” and Director of the Centre for Bioethics, University of Crete

Break        16:00-16:15

Panel Discussion:  What’s next for Greece and the world?        16:15-17:15

Closing Remarks        17:15-18:00

Virtual awarding of certificates of completion and discussion of alumni network and opportunities

Adjourn        18:00